Vygotsky believed that learning is a social process, hence his theory is referred to as "social constructivism." He believed that language, particularly self-talk and inner speech, plays a major role in learning. Major applications of Vygotsky's theory to education include the Zone of Proximal Development, scaffolding, guided participation, apprenticeship, and peer interaction.
Kohlberg's theory takes aim at the development of moral reasoning. In other words, how do children think about moral situations? He advocated teaching moral reasoning through the presentation of moral dilemmas. His stages are as follows:
Level 1: Preconventional morality
Level 2: Conventional morality
Level 3: Postconventional morality
What are the main assumptions and principles of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of development?
What is similar and different about these theories?
Can you think of any personal observations or experiences that support or illustrate principles advocated by these theorists?
Which stages of Erickson's theory of psychosocial development apply to children you are likely to be teaching?
What ideas does Erickson's theory suggest that may help you support the social development of children during their elementary years?
How might you use Kohlberg's ideas about moral development to help students grow in their moral reasoning?